Article: Antioxidants and Redox signaling

Redox homeostasis in photosynthetic organisms: novel and established thiol-based molecular mechanisms. M Zaffagnini, S Fermani, CH Marchand, A Costa, F Sparla, N Rouhier, … Antioxidants and Redox Signaling

Redox homeostasis consists of an intricate network in which reactive molecular species (RMS), redox modifications and redox proteins act in concert to allow both physiological responses and adaptation to stress conditions. This review highlights established and novel thiol-based regulatory pathways underlying the functional facets and significance of redox biology in photosynthetic organisms. This cannot be all-encompassing, but is intended to provide a comprehensive overview on the structural/molecular mechanisms governing the most relevant thiol switching modifications with emphasis on the large genetic and functional diversity of redox controllers (i.e. redoxins). We also summarize the different proteomic-based approaches aimed at investigating the dynamics of redox modifications and the recent evidence that extends the possibility to monitor the cellular redox state in vivo. Lastly, the physiological relevance of redox transitions is discussed based on reverse genetic studies confirming the importance of redox homeostasis in plant growth, development, and stress responses.