WADE Seminar

Alexander Kirdyanov et Marina Bryukhanova

25 October  from 10h00-12h00

Salle Tilleul – INRA Nancy center,  Champenoux

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On October 25th, we are pleased to announce that we will welcome to INRA Alexander Kirdyanov and Marina Bryukhanova from the E. Vaganov group (Sukachev Institute of Forests, Krasnoyarsk).  E. Vagonov is a respected and well known researcher in the field of wood formation. He is also known for his book published in 2006.

This seminar is supported by the WADE project and by Labex ARBRE.


Résumé Alexander Kirdyanov:

Dendro-science in Siberia. Case studies from the Tree-Ring Structure Lab (Institute of Forest, Krasnoyarsk, Russia)

Tree-rings were shown to provide comprehensive information on the environmental changes and physiology of tree functioning. The Laboratory of Tree-Ring Structure at the Sukachev Institute of Forest, Krasnoyarsk Russia is focused on extracting and interpreting this information with the goals to understand the impact of environment on tree growth and forest productivity. A short overview of some recent and current studies will be provided to show the main topics of interest and the potential of the Lab: transect studies, use of multi-proxy approach (tree-ring cell structure, density and isotope composition), studies on permafrost, etc. Examples will vary on both spatial (from one stand to continental) and temporal scale (seasonal growth with the resolution of 3-7 days to multi-millennia dendroclimatic reconstructions).

Résumé Marina Bryukhanova:
Growth of trees on permafrost: habitat driven response to climate

Global change is expected to alter boreal forest conditions with far reaching consequences for tree growth in these ecosystems. Within this study we aimed at determining which limiting factors control tree-growth on permafrost under different site conditions.
A tree-ring multi-proxy characterisation of mature Larix gmelinii (Rupr.) Rupr. from a continuous permafrost zone of Siberia (Russia, 64°18′ N, 100°11′ E) was used to identify the physiological principle of responses related to the plant-soil system. Tree-ring width (1975-2009), carbon and oxygen stable isotopes, and xylem structural characteristics (2000-2009) indicated that an increased depth of the soil active layer favors a better exploitation of the available resources.

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The WADE project
Wood Acclimation to Disturbed Environments

ContextWood quality is variable and used by dendrochronology as a marker of past events. A better understanding of wood plasticity require new modeling approaches, as tree responses in frequently and strongly changing environments overlay many processes. Therefore, neither the usual modeling of wood properties from variables as tree ring width and cambial age, nor the empirical calibration of a few wood properties as markers of tree functioning and environmental disturbances, deliver robust and reliable predictions.

Objectives Wade aims at developing a new framework of wood analysis and quality modeling in the context of questions asked by acclimation to canopy disturbance.

Approaches — WADE is based on a multi-scale approach of wood structure and properties from the whole tree to the cell wall ultrastructure and chemical composition, with a large set of techniques including usual and new methods of both dendro-ecology and wood biophysics and chemistry. It includes a careful theoretical analysis of the functional relevance of the selected properties and of their spatio-temporal patterns of variations, using an ecophysiological and biomechanical framework to study how trees respond to changes of both light and mechanical micro-climate after gap opening.

PI: Meriem Fournier (UMR 1092 LERFOB Laboratoire d’Etudes des Ressources Forêts-Bois )


Labex Seminars in Forest Biomechanics and Modeling

Wednesday 10, 13h30 to 15h30 (INRA Champenoux), Room “Tilleul”

13h30: Rosario Sierra de Grado

Straight  and twisted-stemmed populations in Pinus pinaster: different biomechanical capabilities? Stems, roots and biomass partitioning in tilted plants

14h30: Felipe Bravo

“Modelling Growth and Yield of Pinus sylvestris and Pinus pinaster in Central Spain: individual non-spatial approach, intengration on decision support systems and future integration of climate variable”

Universidad de Valladolid, Palencia campus, Sustainable Forest Management Research Institute, University of Valladolid & INIA Madrid

Rosario is a forest geneticist, specialist of maritime pine breeding. She introduced biomechanical concepts and experiments in tree breeding research (Sierra de Grado et al. Trees 1997, Tree physiology 2008). She was the dean of the forest engineering program (bachelor and master level) of University of Valladolid on Palencia campus. They work in the . Both Her visit is motivated by opportunities of collaboration between our national projects (LABEX WADE task 2, ANR Tropic) and a national Spanish project.

Felipe Bravo is a forest scientist (interests in growth modeling, inventory, adaptive silviculture and forest management, see for example Bravo, F. et al. 2011 Growth and yield models in Spain: Historical overview, Contemporary Examples and perspectives. Forest Systems 20(2):315-328). He is responsible of the new master Erasmus Mundus Program MEDFOR « Mediterranean Forestry ». As Rosario, he was the dean of the forest engineering program (bachelor and master level) of University of Valladolid on Palencia campus. His visit is motivated by his participation in the thesis committee of Vivien Bonnesoeur. He is more generally involved in forest growth modeling, with Mathieu Fortin and Ruben Manso, in the framework of the ANR FOR-WIND. Felipe is also the supervisor with Heinrich Spiecker of the phD of Jorge Olivar, welcomed in LERFoB in 2012 in the Xylosciences platform.

Doc & Postdoc Day

Salle de conférence (INRA-Champenoux)

27 MAI 2013

9h00 – 9h30: Introduction

9h30 – 11h15 : BIODIVERSITÉ ET DISTRIBUTION DES ESPÈCES

09h30 – 09h 45 : Caroline Rolland (EEF) « Effets des pratiques agricoles et des infrastructures agro-écologiques sur la diversité des Chiroptères »

09h45 – 10h00 : Lucy Mayer (EEF) « Importance de la variabilité des traits fonctionnels dans la compréhension de la structuration des communautés végétales de bandes enherbées»

10h00 – 10h30 : Pause café

10h30- 11h00 : Charlotte Grossiord (EEF) « Influence des conditions environnementales sur la relation Biodiversité – Fonctionnement des écosystèmes en forêt boréale»

11h00- 11h15 : Lucie Arnaudet (EEF) « Cœur et périphérie des massifs forestiers : une question d’écologie du paysage ou d’écologie historique ? »

 11h15 – 11h45 : PHYSIQUE DES SOLS

11h15 – 11h45 : Martin Maier (EEF) «Diffusion as exclusive gas transport process in the soil? »

11h45 – 13h30: pause repas

13h30 – 14h30: réponses aux contraintes

13h30-13h45 : Rosmery Robles Leon (EEF) « Effet de la fertilisation du sol sur la résilience des arbres à la sécheresse »

13h45-14h15 : François Bizet (EEF)

14h15-14h30 : Daphné Asse (EEF) « Etude dendroclimatique du hêtre (Fagus sylvatica L.) sur les plateaux calcaires de Bourgogne : analyse des incertitudes générées par les modèles climatiques à maille fine. »

 14h30 – 16h00: dynamiques des réserves

14h30 – 15h00 : Morgane Pluchon (EEF) « Nitrogen dynamics in Eucalyptus, grown in monoculture and in association with Acacia as nitrogen fixing species (NFS) »

15h00 – 15h15 : Mahsa Farjad (EEF) « Impact du mélange robinier/peuplier sur l’assimilation et l’allocation d’azote de peupliers cultivés en plantation à courte rotation »

15h15-15h30 : Mohamed Hamdani (EEF) « Effet de l’introduction d’une espèce fixatrice d’azote (robinier) dans une plantation expérimentale de peupliers (taillis à courte rotation) sur les capacités de mise en réserve du carbone et de l’azote dans les organes pérennes de peupliers. »

15h30-16h00: Cécilia Gana (EEF) « Impact d’un mélange d’espèces fixatrice/non fixatrice d’azote (Robinia pseudoacacia/Populus x euramericana) sur l’allocation et la dynamique du carbone d’une plantation à courte rotation»

16h00 – 16h15: Conclusion et discussions

28 MAI 2013

9h00 – 9h15: Introduction

9h30 – 10H30 : INTERACTIONS PLANTES MICRO-ORGANISMES ET ECOLOGIE MICROBIENNE

9h00 – 9h20 : Clément Pellegrin (IAM) « Functional analysis of putative symbiosis effectors of the ectomycorrhizal symbiont Laccaria bicolor »

9h20 – 9h45 : Stéphane Hacquard (IAM) “The hunt for effectors in the secretome of Melampsora larici-populina

9h45 – 10h10 : Laura Kelly (IAM)  « Bacterial contributions to soil mineral weathering processes in a forest ecosystem »

10h10 – 10h30 : Justine Mauer-Halet (IAM)  « Interactions entre deux bactéries du sol, Streptomyces ambofaciens – Pseudomonas fluorescens »

10h30 – 11h00     Pause

11h00 – 12h05: SESSION CHAMPIGNONS

11h00 – 11h20 : Aurélie Deroy (IAM)  « Evolution et adaptation du système de détoxication chez Trametes versicolor, un champignon dégrandant le bois.»

11h20 – 11h40 : Thibaut Payen (IAM) « Large scale identification and mapping of single nucleotide polymorphisms in black truffle (Tuber melanosporum) by genome resequencing»

11h40 – 12h05 : Sebastian Wittulsky (IAM)   « Manipulation of trehalose biosynthesis in Laccaria bicolor

12h05 – 13h35: PAUSE REPAS

13h35 – 14h25: SESSION CHAMPIGNONS (SUITE)

13h35 – 14h00 : Balázs Vajna (Eötvös Loránd University, Budapest, Hongrie)« Lignocellulose degrading activity of oyster mushroom during substrate colonization and the potential role of bacteria during this process »

14h00 – 14h20 : Alice Vayssières  (IAM) « Reprogramming of root development by the ectomycorrhizal fungus Laccaria bicolor: Involvement of auxin pathways »

 14h20 – 15h00: SESSION BOIS

14h20 – 14h40 : Kevin Candelier (LERMAB) : « Influence of inert atmosphere used (nitrogen and vacuum) during heat treatment of wood on its final physical and chemical properties »

14h40 – 15h00 : Jean Bosco Saha Tchinda (LERMAB) : « Activités antioxidantes, phénols totaux et composition chimique des extraits de quatre essences camerounaises: Moabi, Movingui, Padouk et Tali »

15h00 – 15h05   Zineb Kebbi-Benkeder (Poster) (LERMAB) : « Secondary metabolites in the knots of different tree species »

 

15h05 – 15h35    Pause

15h35 – 16h35: SESSION RÉPONSE AUX STRESS

15h35 – 16h00 : Rita Teixeira :  « Analysis of key transcription factors responsible for root meristem maintenance under biotic and abiotic stress »

16h00 – 16h20 : Henri Pégeot : « Etude structure-fonction des glutathion transférases de la classe Phi chez l’arbre modèle Populus trichocarpa »

16h20 – 16h40 : Anne Thuillier : « Caractérisation fonctionnelle d’une famille de glutathion transférases, enzymes de détoxication d’un champignon ligninolytique »

16h40 – 17H00 : Conclusions et discussions

 

 

 

 

LabeX Seminar Series

UFR Conference Room, University of Lorraine, Vandoeuvre Campus

Tuesday 12 March – 8:00-10:00 am

Communication during plant-microbe interactions

Danny Vereecke

Hogeschool Gent, Belgique

 Plants emit a wide variety of compounds that have a significant effect on the behavior of microbes that live in their proximity. Many microbes are attracted by the plant emissions and in response will engage in beneficial but also in pathogenic interactions. To guarantee the success of these interactions, microbes will often first communicate amongst each other, to ensure that the conditions for the onset of the contact are optimal. Finally, in beneficial but also in certain pathogenic interactions, plant and microbe establish an equilibrium permitting a long lasting life together. In this lecture I will try to give an overview of the diversity of molecular communication mechanisms that can occur during plant-microbe interactions using different examples of well-studied symbioses and pathologies.

LabEx Seminar Series

Conference Room (INRA-Nancy, Champenoux), Tuesday 5 February 2013, 2.00 pm

Biogeochemical Cycling in Forests of the Sierra Nevada Mountains: The Classical Conceptual Model Does Not Fit

Dale W. Johnson

Natural Resources and Environmental Science, University of Nevada, Reno, Nevada USA

The classical conceptual models of biogeochemical cycling include inputs by precipitation, Nfixation, and (later) dry deposition. Outputs include leaching or streamflow and sometimes erosion. The classical soil nutrient cycling sub-models portray intense competition between roots and microbes for limiting nutrients, usually nitrogen. Forests of the Sierra Nevada Mountains of Nevada and California do not fit this model. Because of extremely dry summers, roots – and therefore root-microbe competition – are absent in the forest floor (O horizons). Nutrient mineralization in O horizons is carried by water flowing over the mineral soil, which becomes hydrophobic every summer when it dries out.  We find evidence that entry of these nutrient-rich waters into preferential flow paths in soils creates nutrient hotspots, which are nearly always abundant in these soils.

The most significant reason that the classical biogeochemical models are not applicable to Sierran forests is the omission of fire. These forests are naturally prone to fire, and wildfire in recent times has become more frequent and severe because of unnatural fuel buildups and climate warming. On an annualized basis, the losses of nitrogen by volatilization during fires is many orders of magnitude greater than losses by leaching. Fire can indirectly cause net increases in the nitrogen capital of these ecosystems, however, by fostering  post-fire N2 fixing vegetation which inputs N to the system at a rate that is at least an order of magnitude greater than inputs by precipitation. Fire is far more important than water in controlling the fluxes nitrogen in these systems over the long term.