Archive for the ‘Metagenomics’ category

1000 Fungal Genome (1KFG) project: Graduate Student-Postdoc Challenge (2014)

August 6th, 2014

The 1000 Fungal Genome (1KFG) project is a large-scale community sequencing project supported by the Joint Genome Institute (JGI).  The goal of 1KFG is to facilitate the sequencing of fungal genomes across the Kingdom Fungi with the objective to significantly advance genome-enabled mycology.  The sampling guideline is to sequence two species of fungi for every family-level clade of Fungi so that genomic data is representative of phylogenetic diversity of Fungi. In support of this endeavor, 1KFG is pleased to announce the Graduate Student/Postdoc Challenge.  From July 2014-June 30 2015 we will accept nominations to sequence up to 100 species of fungi in support of graduate student and postdoctoral research projects.  Students and postdocs are encouraged to nominate species and submit DNA and RNA samples for genomic sequencing.

 

Follow the link to find out how to nominate species.

 

Alisha owenby lands an NSF DDIG

May 23rd, 2013

From Joey Spatafora Lab blog

[Alisha Owensby, PhD candidate in the lab, was recently awarded an NSF Doctoral Dissertation Improvement Grant (DDIG) for her proposal, “Evolutionary Genomics of Inter-Kingdom Host-Jumping in the Fungal Genus Elaphocordyceps“.  Way to go!  If you follow our blog, you know that Alisha is currently in Nancy, France working in the laboratory of Francis Martin at INRA.  She is working on the genome of Elaphomyces, one of the hosts of Elaphocordyceps.  This is a particularly challenging project as Elaphomyces does not culture and thus the genomic libraries are prepared from DNA and RNA extracted directly from sporocarps and are metagenomic in nature.  The photo is of Alisha working in Francis’ lab doing an RNA extraction.  Just a few more weeks and she’ll be back.  Bring wine and cheese!!]

Photo: Alisha and Nicolas extracting Elaphomyces RNA for RNA-Seq

F1000 nominations

December 18th, 2012

Great news!!! A new nomination tool for the 1000 Fungal Genome Project has been released (http://genome.jgi-psf.org/pages/fungi-1000-projects.jsf) to entire research community.  Any JGI registered user can click on MycoCosm tree nodes at (jgi.doe.gov/fungi), choose ‘Nominate’ to suggest new fungal species for sequencing and provide DNA/RNA samples to fill the gaps in the Fungal Tree of Life.  The nominations can be made all year around; after review the approved candidates will be added to the list of JGI projects.

The guiding principle for sampling in F1000 is at the end of the project to have 2 representatives from all fungal families or family-level clades. This will require a lot of coordination across several JGI CSP projects, e.g. our Mycorrhizal Genome Initiative, the Forest Soil Metatranscriptome Project and the Saprotrophic Agaricomycotina project, and interactions with the community and systematics experts of given groups. The current nomination will help in selecting the most interesting suggestions from our community.

Photo: Mycena sp. belongs to a large genus of small saprotrophic mushrooms. Mycena galopus will be sequenced within the framework of the Forest Soil Metatranscriptome Project (CSP570) © F Martin

In the limelight …

December 1st, 2012

Forests, Trees, Tree-Microbe Interactions, Symbiosis, Mycorrhizas, Wood Decayers, Carbon Sequestration & Cycling, Global Changes, Genomics … words I have used many times during this amazing week. Starting with an interview by Sophie Bécherel from France Inter on Monday,  followed by a journalist crew’s visiting the lab on Tuesday, then an interview at France Info with Marie-Odile Monchicourt on Wednesday and the INRA Award ceremony on Thursday with the Minister of Higher Education and Research, Geneviève Fioraso, and the Minister of the Agriculture, Stéphane Le Foll. I haven’t fully realized yet that I was awarded the INRA Laurel Wreath for Excellence for my work on tree-microbe interactions and fungal genomics. I hope this award will help in promoting the research on soil microbial ecology, forest ecosystems and symbiotic interactions.

> François Le Tacon, Annegret Kohler, Claude Murat, Alice Vayssières and I describing our on-going research: View the video (in French)

 

From Left to Right : Frédéric Dardel (President of the INRA Scientific Advisory Board), David Lowe (journaliste), Michel Pellé (Research Support Award), Olivier Hamant (The Young Researcher Award), Mariane Damois (Research Support Award), Hélène Bergès (The Engineer’s Award), François Houllier (INRA CEO), Stéphane Le Foll (Minister for Agriculture) and myself  (The Laurel Wreath for Excellence). © INRA, B. Nicolas

Exploring the Mycorrhizal Genomes

September 9th, 2012

 

I hope you are wrapping up a good summer. I’m touching base to update you on our Mycorrhizal Genomics Initiative (MGI).

The list of taxa of mycorrhizal fungi for the first series of analyses aiming to identify symbiotic traits has now been “frozen”. Thanks to Igor Grigoriev’s JGI team, this list includes an outstanding series of annotated genomes and transcriptomes from ectomycorrhizal, ericoid and orchid symbionts:

  • Amanita muscaria Koide
  • Hebeloma cylindrosporum h7  (v2.0),
  • Laccaria bicolor (v2.0),
  • Oidiodendron maius Zn,
  • Paxillus involutus,
  • Paxillus rubicundulus,
  • Piloderma croceum F 1598,
  • Pisolithus microcarpus 441,
  • Pisolithus tinctorius 270,
  • Scleroderma citrinum FougA,
  • Sebacina vermifera MAFF 305830,
  • Suillus luteus UH-Slu-Lm8-n1,
  • Tulasnella calospora AL13/4D,

In addition, the following available transcriptomes will also be mined for symbiotic-related features:

  • Cenococcum geophilum
  • Cortinarius glaucopus,
  • Laccaria amethystina 08-1,
  • Lactarius quietus,
  • Meliniomyces bicolor,
  • Meliniomyces variabilis, and
  • Tricholoma matsutake 945.

Finally, we will add the unpublished genomes of five saprotrophic agaricomycotina (including leaf-litter species) that we will use for identifying potential common genomic features in litter-borne and mycorrhizal fungi:

  • Jaapia argillacea MUCL-33604,
  • Hydnomerulium pinastri MD-312,
  • Plicaturopsis crispa FD-325 SS-3,
  • Hypholoma sublateritium FD-334 SS-4, and
  • Gymnopus luxurians FD-317 M1

JGI has (or will soon) publicly released the web portals with the annotation for the above-mentioned fungal species. Visit the JGI Mycocosm database. In addition, we have released web sites for the corresponding transcriptome annotation at the Mycorhiza Genomics Initiative portal [restricted].

To make good use of this tremendous genomic resource, we are organizing the 2nd MGI Workshop at the INRA-Nancy center in Champenoux (France), on November 13-14, 2012. The aim of the workshop is to bring together the consortium teams for discussing our findings. The format of the workshop will be roughly equally split between informal presentations summarizing the current findings and brainstorming about how to take advantage of the genome sequences to inform our understanding of symbiosis and fungal biology.

On the following days, we will organize a New Phytologist Workshop entitled ‘ Bridging Mycorrhizal Genomics, Metagenomics & Forest Ecology‘. The workshop will also take place at INRA-Nancy over two days (Thursday 15 & Friday 16 November). The aim is to bring together a small group of MGI PI’s, fungal biologists and ecologists (20-25 attendees) to explore the future use of mycorrhizal genomes in order to both maximize the efficacy with which the community utilizes these technological breakthroughs in biology, ecology, phylogenetics, and forestry.

Photo: Larch Bolete (Suillus grevellei) (Boletales), a close relative of the sequenced slippery Jack (Suillus luteus) (© F Martin).

JGI Summer 2012 Primer

August 2nd, 2012

The summer edition of the U.S Department of Energy (DOE) Joint Genome Institute (JGI) newsletter The Primer is now available for download: http://bit.ly/JGI-Summer-Primer-2012

…featuring articles and images:

Features include:

  • A summary of the 7th Annual Sequencing, Finishing, Analysis in the Future (SFAF) Meeting
  • Comparative Genomics of White Rot Fungi Providing Insight into Selective Ligninolysis
  • The Omics Response to the Deepwater Oil Spill
  • Assembling the Switchgrass Genome
  • Single-cell Genomics @ the DOE JGI
  • Save the Date for the 8th Annual Genomics of Energy & Environment Meeting MARCH 25-29, 2013 in WALNUT CREEK, CA
  • Other Publication Highlights

 

 

8th JGI Users Meeting

August 2nd, 2012


JGI Spring 2012 Primer

May 29th, 2012

The Spring 2012 edition of the DOE Joint Genome Institute (DOE JGI) newsletter The Primer is now available for download:
http://1.usa.gov/JGI-Primer-Spring-2012
and features highlights from the DOE JGI Genomics of Energy & Environment Meeting #7.

Videos of the talks from Meeting #7 are posted here:
http://bit.ly/JGI_Mtg7Videos


Be sure to Save the Date for meeting #8 the week of March 25-29, 2013.

JGI Fungal Jamboree

March 19th, 2012

The annual JGI Fungal Jamboree will start on Monday 19th at the Marriott Hotel in Walnut Creek. During the workshop, attendees will:

  • provide an update on their JGI program’s development during the last year and future plans,
  • discuss several important questions, including: (1) How to address current bottlenecks for future scale-up (target selection, DNA samples, analysis, publications)? (2) How to reach new groups of users and coordinate with other large genomics initiatives (e.g., 1K Chinese Fungal Genomes)? (3) What products in addition to sequencing JGI should be working on for mycologists? (4) What informatics/analytical needs should be addressed?
  • discuss strategic partnerships.

I will report on our two fungal programs, i.e. the Mycorrhizal Genomics Initiative and the Metatranscriptomics of Forest Soils.

    Lab of Excellence for Advanced Research on the Biology of TRee and Forest Ecosystems

    February 15th, 2012

     

     

    Forests provide a wide range of services: wood products and biomass for bioenergy, as well as many ecosystem services, such as carbon sequestration, water and air quality, biodiversity preservation and amenities. The European forest area has been expanding over the last century and standing tree volume is increasing, but several models showed that the trend towards increased productivity might reverse after 2050. Today, forests face unprecedented changes, largely resulting from human activity. Forests will experience rapid changes in the near future, and characterising the ecological and evolutionary dynamics of their response to global change is an ongoing challenge. European forests are usually managed to provide multiple services, and are facing increasingly pressing demands from society to supply more products of higher quality to fuel and feed the ‘green’ economy of tomorrow, and to provide additional social and environmental services to satisfy populations. These sometimes conflicting injunctions are taking place within a context of weak timber markets, scarce public resources, and against a backdrop of unprecedented anthropogenic changes that question the very long-term sustainability of many forest ecosystems.

     

    The Lab of Excellence (LABEX) for Advanced Research on the Biology of FoRest Ecosystems (ARBRE) was granted yesterday with € 7.5 million by the ‘Investissement d’Avenir‘ programme. The LABEX ARBRE  is a consortium of labs from INRA, Université de Lorraine, and AgroParisTech to address issues challenging forests through an interdisciplinary approach. ARBRE covers a broad spectrum of expertise, and has the potential to create a unique scientific consortium for experimental tree biology, functional ecology, wood sciences, economics, and for transferring knowledge to partners in forest management, wood transformation and other activities. One of the main strengths is the presence within ARBRE of research and training capacities that cover the whole forest-wood chain from production to transformation and economic valuation, which is a unique feature across Europe. Moreover, the contributions from the Office National des Forêts (ONF), Centre National de la Propriété Forestière (CNPF) and EFICENT-Observatory of European Forests (EFICENT-OEF) will facilitate knowledge transfer and help the emergence of novel research questions. ARBRE will support ~ 100 scientists.


    The main research objectives of ARBRE are to further the understanding of biological, ecological and evolutionary processes that affect interactions between organisms in temperate forest ecosystems, and to develop new approaches to address key questions related to nutrient cycling, carbon storage and cycling, forest productivity, wood products, ecosystem services and sustainable forest management. We will implement a wide range of disciplines – from genomics to functional ecology and economics – to understand, monitor and predict community structures, dynamics and processes in forest ecosystems. ARBRE will also address significant questions in forest ecology and evolution through synthesis of existing data or development of novel theory, design novel wood products and make policy recommendations based on scientific data.

     

    Relative to existing international research efforts in this field, ARBRE’s unique added value is its integrated approach aiming to: (i) develop a comprehensive molecular-level understanding of the forest soil microbiome, tree-microbe interactions, and tree development and functioning, to be achieved through the application of ‘-omics’ approaches and system biology; (ii) generate functional and mechanistic insights into the complex interactions between biogeochemical cycles, carbon sequestration and biodiversity in forests, including interspecific and intraspecific genetic variability. This will be achieved by using long-term observatories (LTO), dedicated field experiments including isotopes tracing and large database analysis; (iii) integrate biochemistry- and biophysics-based knowledge to understand wood formation and to produce timber with properties tailored for ‘green’ end-products; (iv) contribute to the broader development of social, economic, and regulatory policies related to forest sciences and innovation in France, focusing on biodiversity; (v) train highly qualified personnel for careers in France’s R&D-driven industries and institutions; (vi) disseminate scientific innovation rapidly to end users represented in the consortium [like Office National des Forêts (ONF), CNPF and others].

    ARBRE will couple bottom-up (from the understanding of processes to forest functions) and top down approaches (from the production of goods and services back to processes) within a series of interconnected task forces or  workpackages (WPs). WP1 will integrate genomics know-how and toolkits to identify major genetic factors controlling soil microbiomes, root-microbe interactions, tree root development and functioning, focusing on stress responses. WP2 will investigate the processes taking place at the interfaces (soil/microbe/tree and tree/atmosphere) in disturbed forest ecosystems and will forecast the state and future evolution of temperate forests. WP3 will link wood properties of the forest resource to the ‘green’ end-products that can be tailored from wood fibers and their chemical components. WP4 will develop biodiversity indicators and a new set of economic instruments (such as payment instruments) for motivating forest managers based on those indicators.

    ARBRE will also stimulate the development of educational programmes in tree and microbial biology, forest ecology and management, wood sciences and economic sciences. ARBRE will contribute to the development of a unique and coordinated training facility for engineering and research covering all fields relevant to the forest based sector, contributing to the development and recognition of Lorraine as one of the leading European Center for education in forest and wood sciences. ARBRE will open new positions for postdoctoral fellows and Ph.D. students in the coming months.

     

     

     

    JGI Fungal Jamboree 2012

    February 15th, 2012

    Mycorrhizal Genomics Initiative: an Update

    January 18th, 2012

    I am writing to touch base about our JGI Mycorrhizal Genomics Initiative. As of today, the genome annotations publicly released are those of:

    The genome of Piloderma croceum and Tulasnella calospora are in the JGI annotation pipeline and should (hopefully) be available in the coming weeks. Those of Cenococcum geophilum, Sebacina vermifera, and Pisolithus tinctorius are in the final phase of sequencing, but Cenococcum and Pisolithus are difficult (large and polymorphic) genomes and JGI cannot give an estimated date of release.

    The transcriptome of free-living mycelium of C. geophilum, H. cylindrosporum, O. maius, P. involutus, P. croceum, P. microcarpus, P. tinctorius, Scleroderma citrinum, Sebacina vermifera and T. calospora are sequenced (RNA-Seq) and a series of dedicated databases are under construction.

    Finally, Igor Grigoriev, Joey Spatafora and I would like to invite you to Walnut Creek in mid-March 2012 to participate in several important JGI meetings:

    • Fungal Jamboree (March 19, 2011 8am-8pm) to discuss progress and coordination of large scale initiatives in fungal genomics: (1) Genomic Encyclopedia of Fungi, (2) 1000 fungal genomes, and (3) Fungal model systems and metagenomes (including our Mycorrhizal Genome Initiative).
    • JGI User Meeting (March 20-22, 2012: http://www.jgi.doe.gov/meetings/usermeeting/) and workshops including MycoCosm Tutorial (March 20, afternoon)

    You could access our recently opened MycorWeb portal dedicated to this project, Mycorrhizal Genomics Initiative, for links and updates.

    JGI Winter 2012 Primer

    January 11th, 2012

    The Winter 2012 edition of the DOE Joint Genome Institute newsletter, The Primer, is out and downloadable here: http://1.usa.gov/d0VkZt

    Highlights include:

    • DOE JGI Data Analysis Assets Featured in the Special Database Issue of Nucleic Acids Research, including: The Genome portal, IMGIMG/MPhytozome and GOLD.
    • 2012 Community Sequencing Program (CSP) Portfolio Announcement
    • Microbial Activity in Arctic Permafrost
    • DOE JGI Presentation Schedule at the Upcoming Plant & Animal Genome (PAG) Meeting: http://www.intlpag.org/web/

     

    Functions and ecology of the plant microbiome

    December 24th, 2011

    28th New Phytologist Symposium: Functions and ecology of the plant microbiome  

    Rhodes, Greece, 18–21 May 2012

    http://www.newphytologist.org/microbiome/default.htm

     

    The Earth’s Vast Symbiosphere

    December 11th, 2011

    JGI Fungal Genome Program update

    November 12th, 2011

    Some news from the JGI Fungal Genome Program By Igor Grigoriev:

    CSP2012 results were recently announced and eight new fungal projects were selected for the next year in tight competition with others. The winners included large scale genome sequencing projects (1000+ Fungal Genomes, thermophiles, Colletotrichum), functional genomics of model fungal organisms (Schizophyllum commune, Coprinopsis cinerea) and exploration of fungal systems (lichens, cow rumen guts, forest soils), all in good alignment with our strategic goals. We published a summary of CSP11 portfolio and Genomic Encyclopedia of Fungi in New Phytologist and Mycology journals.

    In order to discuss ongoing projects and better coordinate in future we would like to organize a fungal jamboree (tentatively on Mar 19, 2012) just before the JGI User meeting in Walnut Creek (Mar 20-22, 2012). The meeting will focus on bringing larger research community into discussions of the Genomic Encyclopedia of Fungi, 1000 fungal genomes, and fungal systems/metagenomics.

    The latest version of MycoCosm now offers 100+ fungal genomes to public. Since this is a relatively new system, we would like to get feedback from you and your colleagues using a 5 minutes online survey. This will help us to better assess your experience and needs and share this feedback with DOE, which will reveiw JGI programs next month. Please share this survey with your colleagues and ask them to complete it by the next week.

    Photo: The polypore Fomitopsis pinicola (© F Martin).

    DOE JGI 2012 Community Sequencing Program Portfolio

    November 4th, 2011

    Trillions Served: Massive, Complex Projects Dominate DOE JGI 2012 Community Sequencing Program Portfolio.

    ‘The 2012 Community Sequencing Program (CSP) call invited researchers to submit proposals for projects that advance capabilities in fields such as plant-microbe interactions, microbes involved in carbon capture and greenhouse gas emission, and metagenomics—the characterization of complex collections of microbes from particular environmental niches. The total allocation for the coming year’s CSP portfolio will exceed 30 trillion bases (terabases or Tb), a 100-fold increase compared with just two years ago, when just a third of a terabase was allocated to more than 70 projects. This amounts to the equivalent of at least 10,000 human genomes in data …’ Read more

     

    Photo:  The boreal forest, one of the ecosystem investigated by the CSP 2012 program. Denali Natl Park, Alaska  (© F Martin)

    Metatranscriptomics of Forest Soil Ecosystems

    October 29th, 2011

     

    Forest soils (including litter, humus and coarse woody debris) host diverse microbial communities that impact tree health and productivity, and which play pivotal roles in terrestrial carbon sequestration, and biogeochemical cycles. Among these microbial communities, fungi are undoubtly major players. Traditionally, they have been divided into discrete ecological guilds, such as leaf litter-decomposers, humus saprobes, white- and brown-rot wood decayers, parasites and mycorrhizal symbionts. However, the actual functional properties of individual species, and the synergistic effects among them, are often obscure. Moreover, the basic biodiversity of the vast majority of soil systems (e.g., boreal forests and subartic taiga) remains unexplored using high-throughput DNA barcoding approaches.

    We hypothesize that firm distinctions between fungi commonly labeled mycorrhizal, wood decomposer, humus and litter saprobes are, in some instances, unwarranted, and that crucial ecosystem processes, such as carbon sequestration, wood and litter decay and trophic mutualism, can only be understood in the context of interactions among multiple species representing a functional continuum. The number of available fungal genomes has expanded dramatically in recent months, and this provides unprecedented opportunities to study the functional (and taxonomic) diversity of soil communities.

    Within the framework of the DOE Joint Genome Institute Community Sequencing Program, we have therefore embarked in a challenging large-scale metatranscriptomics project to explore the interaction of forest trees with communities of soil fungi, including ectomycorrhizal symbionts that dramatically affect tree growth, and saprotrophic soil fungi impacting carbon sequestration in forests. We are going to sequence the metatranscriptome of soil fungi (i.e., wood decayers, litter and humus saprotrophs, and ectomycorrhizal symbionts) in woody debris, litter/humus, rhizosphere and ectomycorrhizal roots of ecosystems representative of major Earth biomes, the boreal, temperate and mediterranean forests.

    Metatranscriptome samples. A range of forest ecosystems has been selected on the basis of their ecological importance and the availability of metadata linked to these forest sites. In contrast to agricultural soils, forest soils, in particular those of boreal forests with low pH values, are characterised by strong vertical stratification due to the resulting absence of fauna causing mixing. This provides a spatial structure for evaluation of hypotheses concerning functional attributes of taxa occupying spatially distinct horizons.

    Sampling will be conducted on selected stands in long-term observatories (LTOs) or national survey sites:

    • Boreal forests: Bonanza Creek (Alaska) and Siljansfors (Sweden).
    • Temperate forests: DOE long term studies at Duke Forest, the post-fire stands at the Bitterroot National Forest and Michigan maple N-deposition sites (USA), a forest-woodland-grassland transect in Rollainville (France), and the Breuil-Chenue plantation (France).
    • Mediterranean forests at Puéchabon near Montpellier (France) and at Aspurz south-western Pyrenees (Spain).

    For these soil samples, we will run: (1) Tag-encoded FLX-titanium amplicon pyrosequencing (TEFAP) of the fungal rDNA ITS to survey the existing communities and (2) RNA-Seq of soil samples. For this cDNA profiling, we will sequence ~110Gbp per site for a total of 1 terabase using Illumina HiSeq PE chemistry. Reads produced by RNA-Seq will be used to reconstruct de novo the different fungal metatranscriptomes (best case scenario). In addition, we will use Illumina fragment recruitment, a process of aligning sequencing reads to reference genomes. Metatranscriptomic reads will thus be aligned to the >100 genomes of soil fungi available in the JGI MycoCosm. To improve this crucial step, we also propose the gDNA sequencing and RNA-Seq of the 25 most abundant fungal species harvested on the studied sites to serve as the foundation for a reference database for metagenomics of fungi and for a comprehensive survey of the potential soil fungal metabolome. We will annotate the fungal genomes/transcriptomes and soil fungal metagenomes with all these characteristics and will compare the different metagenomes in terms of these characteristics.

    These experimental datasets will provide a mechanistic insight into the fungal communities’ structural organization and functioning in forests. In addition, the present metagenomic data will give a comprehensive picture of the organization of the tree-associated microbiome in terms of metabolic pathways, subsystems, molecular functions and biological processes.

    Sequencing of new fungal species will be performed in concert with existing large-scale genome studies (e.g., the 1000 Fungal Genomes project), so as to minimize unnecessary redundancies. As such we recognize that this project represents a large effort and great challenge in defining the microbiome of important forest ecosystems and a group of micro-organisms, the soil fungi.

    The Consortium: Scott BAKER, Dan CULLEN, Roger FINLAY, David HIBBETT, Igor GRIGORIEV, Cheryl KUSKE, Roland MARMEISSE, Francis MARTIN, Antonio PISABARRO, Joey SPATAFORA, Jan STENLID & Rytas VILGALYS

    Image (top): Denali Ntl Park, Alaska (© F Martin)

    7th Annual DOE JGI User Meeting

    October 24th, 2011

    The 7th Annual DOE JGI User Meeting ‘Genomics of Energy & Environment’ will be held at the Marriott Hotel in Walnut Creek, California on March 20 – 22, 2012.

    Scientists interested in how genomics applies to bioenergy and environmental issues are invited to attend the annual DOE Joint Genome Institute Genomics of Energy & Environment Meeting. This international gathering of researchers with an interest in sequence-based science offers three days of presentations, tours, workshops, and poster sessions.

    Topics: Synthetic biology & biodesign, Systems biology/transcriptional networks, Application of single cell genomics in microbial ecology and bioprospecting, Genomic analysis of biofuel traits in maize and switchgrass, Cloud computing as a platform for large scale sequence analysis, Ocean viruses: towards population genomics, understanding virus-host interactions, and accessing the uncultured, Omics in the Arctic: Genome-enabled contributions to carbon cycle and biogeochemical research in high-latitude ecosystems, and Ancient DNA

     

    JGI Fall 2011 Primer

    October 24th, 2011

    The Fall edition of the U.S Department of Energy (DOE) Joint Genome Institute (JGI) newsletter The Primer is now available for download:

    …featuring articles and images:

    • Tagging enzymes that can take the heat
    • Carbon fixation in the dark ocean
    • Linking fungi to boreal forests
    • Notable publications & more…